I. A sample end-of-5th grade test question from Pennsylvania's revised PSSA tests.
Note: The state doesn't publicize what percentage correct is necessary for a score of "proficient" or "advanced," but rumor has it that it's significantly below the 80% benchmark set by the Singapore Math placement tests.
II. From the Singapore Math 5A placement test, for which 80% correct says you're ready for the second half of the fifth grade curriculum:
III. Extra Credit
Compare the problems in terms of (1) how well defined the questions are and (2) how obvious the first steps are.
First hint: How well defined is "1/3 of a bowl of rice"?
Second hint: In which problem is the first arithmetic operation immediately obvious, and in which one do you need first to devise an overall strategy?