From the 8th grade Pennsylvania System of School Assessment (PSSA) Mathematics Item and Scoring Sampler for Grade 8:
1. In what sense is this a complete explanation?
Hint: Consider the terms "even," "exact value," and "never stops." Consider as well the difference between answering a question and rephrasing the question as a statement.
2. Discuss the human element involved in scoring responses to open-ended questions on tests taken by millions of students.
3. Discuss the human element involved in scoring the verbal explanations submitted by tens of thousands of English-impaired students.